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 brief history of pakistan

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PostSubject: brief history of pakistan   Mon 03 Aug 2009, 7:34 am

Today I am going to share a brief history of pakistan... Mujhe maloom hai k ye baatein sb ko pata he hoon gi lekin mai ye yahan pe post krne se apne aap ko rook nahi paa raha hun...
So, ye lejiye..
Pakistan Flag
BACKGROUND
TO PARTITION



The concept of a separate Muslim
"nation" or "people," qaum, is
inherent in Islam, but this concept bears no resemblance
to a territorial entity. The proposal for a Muslim state
in India was first enunciated in 1930 by the
poet-philosopher Muhammad Iqbal, who suggested that the
four northwestern provinces (Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab,
and the North-West Frontier Province) should be joined in
such a state. In a 1933 pamphlet Choudhary Rahmat Ali, a
Cambridge student, coined the name Pakstan (later
Pakistan), on behalf of those Muslims living in Punjab,
Afghan (North-West Frontier Province), Kashmir, Sind, and
Balochistan. Alternatively the name was said to mean
"Land of the Pure." (H.R.T.)

Birth of the new
state.



Pakistan came into existence as a
dominion within the Commonwealth in August 1947, with
Jinnah as governor-general and
Liaquat Ali Khan as prime minister. With West and East
Pakistan separated by more than 1,000 miles of Indian
territory and with the major portion of the wealth and
resources of the British heritage passing to India,
Pakistan's survival seemed to hang in the balance. Of all
the well-organized provinces of British India, only the
comparatively backward areas of Sindh, Balochistan, and
the North-West Frontier came to Pakistan intact. The
Punjab and Bengal were divided, and Kashmir became
disputed territory. Economically, the situation seemed
almost hopeless; the new frontier cut off Pakistani raw
materials from the Indian factories, disrupting industry,
commerce, and agriculture. The partition and the movement
of refugees were accompanied by terrible massacres for
which both communities were responsible. India remained
openly unfriendly; its economic superiority expressed
itself in a virtual blockade. The dispute over Kashmir
brought the two countries to the verge of war; and
India's command of the headworks controlling the water
supplies to Pakistan's eastern canal colonies gave it an
additional economic weapon. The resulting friction, by
obstructing the process of sharing the assets inherited
from the British raj (according to plans previously
agreed), further handicapped Pakistan. (L.F.R.W.)

THE
TRANSFER OF POWER AND THE BIRTH OF TWO NATIONS

British India in 1947, showing major
administrative divisions, the distribution of the
principal.



Elections held in the winter of 1945-46
proved how effective Jinnah's single-plank strategy for
his Muslim League had been, as the league won all 30
seats reserved for Muslims in the Central Legislative
Assembly and most of the reserved provincial seats as
well. The Congress was successful in gathering most of
the general electorate seats, but it could no longer
effectively insist that it spoke for the entire
population of British India.

In 1946, Secretary of State
Pethick-Lawrence personally led a three-man Cabinet
deputation to New Delhi with the hope of resolving the
Congress-Muslim League deadlock and, thus, of
transferring British power to a single Indian
administration. Cripps was responsible primarily for
drafting the ingenious Cabinet Mission Plan, which
proposed a three-tier federation for India, integrated by
a minimal central-union government in Delhi, which would
be limited to handling foreign affairs, communications,
defense, and only those finances required to care for
such unionwide matters. The subcontinent was to be
divided into three major groups of provinces: Group A, to
include the Hindu-majority provinces of the Bombay
Presidency, Madras, the United Provinces, Bihar, Orissa,
and the Central Provinces (virtually all of what became
independent India a year later); Group B, to contain the
Muslim-majority provinces of the Punjab, Sind, the
North-West Frontier, and Baluchistan (the areas out of
which the western part of Pakistan was created); and
Group C, to include the Muslim-majority Bengal (a portion
of which became the eastern part of Pakistan and in 1971
the country of Bangladesh) and the Hindu-majority Assam.
The group governments were to be virtually autonomous in
everything but matters reserved to the union centre, and
within each group the princely states were to be
integrated into their neighbouring provinces. Local
provincial governments were to have the choice of opting
out of the group in which they found themselves should a
majority of their populace vote to do so.

Punjab's large and powerful Sikh
population would have been placed in a particularly
difficult and anomalous position, for Punjab as a whole
would have belonged to Group B, and much of the Sikh
community had become anti-Muslim since the start of the
Mughal emperors' persecution of their gurus in the 17th
century. Sikhs played so important a role in the British
Indian Army that many of their leaders hoped that the
British would reward them at the war's end with special
assistance in carving out their own nation from the rich
heart of Punjab's fertile canal-colony lands, where, in
the "kingdom" once ruled by Ranjit Singh
(1780-1839), most Sikhs lived. Since World War I, Sikhs
had been equally fierce in opposing the British raj, and,
though never more than 2 percent of India's population,
they had as highly disproportionate a number of
nationalist "martyrs" as of army officers. A
Sikh Akali Dal ("Party of Immortals"), which
was started in 1920, led militant marches to liberate
gurdwaras ("doorways to the Guru"; the Sikh
places of worship) from corrupt Hindu managers. Tara
Singh (1885-1967), the most important leader of this
vigorous Sikh political movement, first raised the demand
for a separate Azad ("Free") Punjab in 1942. By
March 1946, Singh demanded a Sikh nation-state,
alternately called "Sikhistan" or
"Khalistan" ("Land of the Sikhs" or
"Land of the Pure"). The Cabinet Mission,
however, had no time or energy to focus on Sikh
separatist demands and found the Muslim League's demand
for Pakistan equally impossible to accept.

As a pragmatist, Jinnah, himself
mortally afflicted with tuberculosis and lung cancer,
accepted the Cabinet Mission's proposal, as did Congress
leaders. The early summer of 1946, therefore, saw a dawn
of hope for India's future prospects, but that soon
proved false when Nehru announced at his first press
conference as the reelected president of the Congress
that no constituent assembly could be "bound"
by any prearranged constitutional formula. Jinnah read
Nehru's remarks as a "complete repudiation" of
the plan, which had to be accepted in its entirety in
order to work. Jinnah then convened the league's Working
Committee, which withdrew its previous agreement to the
federation scheme and instead called upon the
"Muslim Nation" to launch "direct
action" in mid-August 1946. Thus began India's
bloodiest year of civil war since the mutiny nearly a
century earlier. The Hindu-Muslim rioting and killing
that started in Calcutta sent deadly sparks of fury,
frenzy, and fear to every corner of the subcontinent, as
all civilized restraint seemed to disappear.

Lord Mountbatten (1900-79) was sent to
replace Wavell as viceroy in March 1947, as Britain
prepared to transfer its power over India to some
"responsible" hands by no later than June 1948.
Shortly after reaching Delhi, where he conferred with the
leaders of all parties and with his own officials,
Mountbatten decided that the situation was too dangerous
to wait even that brief period. Fearing a forced
evacuation of British troops still stationed in India,
Lord Mountbatten resolved to opt for partition, one that
would divide Punjab and Bengal virtually in half, rather
than risk further political negotiations while civil war
raged and a new mutiny of Indian troops seemed imminent.
Among the major Indian leaders, Gandhi alone refused to
reconcile himself to partition and urged Mountbatten to
offer Jinnah the premiership of a united India rather
than a separate Muslim nation. Nehru, however, would not
agree to that, nor would his most powerful Congress
deputy, Vallabhbhai Patel (1875-1950), as both had become
tired of arguing with Jinnah and were eager to get on
with the job of running an independent government of
India.

Britain's Parliament passed in July
1947 the Indian Independence Act, ordering the
demarcation of the dominions of India and Pakistan by
midnight of Aug. 14-15, 1947, and dividing within a
single month the assets of the world's largest empire,
which had been integrated in countless ways for more than
a century. Racing the deadline, two boundary commissions
worked desperately to partition Punjab and Bengal in such
a way as to leave a majority of Muslims to the west of
the former's new boundary and to the east of the
latter's, but as soon as the new borders were known, no
fewer than 10 million Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs fled
from their homes on one side of the newly demarcated
borders to what they thought would be "shelter"
on the other. In the course of that tragic exodus of
innocents, some 1 million people were slaughtered in
communal massacres that made all previous conflicts of
the sort known to recent history pale by comparison.
Sikhs, caught in the middle of Punjab's new
"line," suffered the highest percentage of
casualties. Most Sikhs finally settled in India's
much-diminished border state of Punjab. Tara Singh later
asked, "The Muslims got their Pakistan, and the
Hindus got their Hindustan, but what did the Sikhs
get?"

(The following section discusses the
history since 1947 of those areas of the subcontinent
that became the Republic of India. For historical
coverage since 1947 of the partitioned areas in the
northwest and the northeast, see the articles PAKISTAN
and BANGLADESH.)

ISLAMIC
REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN



Mohammed Ali Jinnah died in September
1948, within 13 months of independence. The leaders of
the new Pakistan were mainly lawyers with a strong
commitment to parliamentary government. They had
supported Jinnah in his struggle against the Congress not
so much because they desired an Islamic state but because
they had come to regard the Congress as synonymous with
Hindu domination. They had various degrees of personal
commitment to Islam. To some it represented an ethic that
might (or might not) be the basis of personal behaviour
within a modern, democratic state. To others it
represented a tradition, the framework within which their
forefathers had ruled India. But there were also groups
that subscribed to Islam as a total way of life, and
these people were said to wish to establish Pakistan as a
theocracy (a term they repudiated). The members of the
old Constituent Assembly, elected at the end of 1945,
assembled at Karachi, the new capital.

Jinnah's lieutenant, Liaquat Ali Khan,
inherited the task of drafting a constitution. Himself a
moderate (he had entered politics via a landlord party),
he subscribed to the parliamentary, democratic, secular
state. But he was conscious that he possessed no local or
regional power base. He was a muhajir
("refugee") from the United Provinces, the
Indian heartland, whereas most of his colleagues and
potential rivals drew support from their own people in
Punjab or Bengal. Liaquat Ali Khan therefore deemed it
necessary to gain the support of the religious spokesmen
(the mullahs or, more properly, the ulama). He issued a
resolution on the aims and objectives of the
constitution, which began, "Sovereignty over the
entire universe belongs to Allah Almighty alone" and
went on to emphasize Islamic values. Hindu members of the
old Constituent Assembly protested; Islamic states had
traditionally distinguished between the Muslims, as full
citizens, and dhimmis, nonbelievers who were denied
certain rights and saddled with certain additional
obligations.

SO. PAKISTAN ZINDABAD....

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PostSubject: Re: brief history of pakistan   Mon 03 Aug 2009, 9:24 am

GREAT YAAR
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PostSubject: Re: brief history of pakistan   Tue 04 Aug 2009, 11:01 am

very nice effort

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PostSubject: Re: brief history of pakistan   Tue 04 Aug 2009, 1:20 pm

Good Sharring.. Thanks
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PostSubject: Re: brief history of pakistan   Thu 10 Sep 2009, 4:38 pm

Gr8 sharing
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PostSubject: Re: brief history of pakistan   Fri 21 May 2010, 7:17 pm

nice sharing yaar...
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